Archive for the ‘Inmigración’ Category

River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands

Marshall Poe

New Books in History    June 12, 2014

Omar Valerio Jiménez

Omar Valerio Jiménez

Historically speaking, who you were depended on who your rulers were and the ethnic identity (including language, religion, and folkways) of “your” people. In the era of nation-states–that is, our era–these two characteristics have, for most people, been fused. Ethnic Germans live in Germany, ethnic Chinese live in China, ethnic Egyptians live in Egypt. The exceptions to this rule are two: ethnic minorities (e.g., Jews, Kurds, Uyghers, etc.) residing in nation-states and people who live in the shifting borderlands between nation-states.

511zJ3AL48L__SL160_Omar Valerio-Jiménez‘s fascinating book River of Hope: Forging Identity and Nation in the Rio Grande Borderlands (Duke University Press, 2013) is about identity in one particularly interesting shifting borderland, that found in the Rio Grande region between New Spain/Mexico and the United States. Valerio-Jiménez shows that the people of the Rio Grande were, ethnically speaking, many: a variety of native Americans, Spanish soldiers and colonists, Mexican and American immigrants of every stripe. The border shifted back and forth; the river and its people for the most part remained, adapting to new regimes and new conditions. Just “who” they were at any given time depended on a whole variety of factors, all of which are expertly explored by Valerio-Jiménez. Listen in to our fascinating discussion.

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“How Immigration Became Illegal”: Aviva Chomsky on U.S. Exploitation of Migrant Workers

Democracy Now  May 30, 2014

We are joined by Aviva Chomsky, whose new book, “Undocumented: How Immigration Became Illegal” details how systemic prejudice against Mexicans and many other migrant workers has been woven into U.S. immigration policies that deny them the same path to citizenship that have long been granted to European immigrants. She also draws parallels between the immigration laws now in place that criminalize migrants, and the caste system that has oppressed African Americans, as described by Prof. Michelle Alexander in her book, “The New Jim Crow.” Chomsky’s previous book on this topic is “They Take Our Jobs! and 20 Other Myths about Immigration.” She is a professor of history and coordinator of Latin American studies at Salem State University in Massachusetts.


This is a rush transcript. Copy may not be in its final form.

JUAN GONZÁLEZ: We turn now to a new book that documents how systemic prejudice against Mexicans and many other migrant workers has been woven into U.S. immigration policies that deny them the same path to citizenship that has long been granted to European immigrants. The book is by Aviva Chomsky, and it’s called, “Undocumented: How Immigration Became Illegal.”

AMY GOODMAN: Chomsky’s previous book on this topic is, “‘They Take Our Jobs!’ and 20 Other Myths About Immigration.” She is Professor of History and Coordinator of Latin American Studies at Salem State University in Massachusetts. In case you’re wondering, yes, she’s the eldest daughter of Professor Noam Chomsky. She is joining us from Boston. Professor Chomsky, welcome to Democracy Now! Talk about this history that is not very well understood, I think, in this country.

AVIVA CHOMSKY: Right, I agree that it is not very well understood. We often hear people saying this is a country of immigrants, as if that explains something. But, I think when we say this is a country of immigrants, we are actually hiding as much as we are explaining. OK, let me try to explain that. So this is a country of immigrants. People have in mind Ellis Island, they have in mind the European immigrants, they have in mind the people who, under U.S. law have been considered immigrants since really the founding of the country. We need to think about how immigration and citizenship work together. That is those who the law has considered immigrants are those who were considered to be potential citizens.

Now, citizenship law in the U.S. restricted citizenship to white people until the Civil War. After the Civil War, citizenship was restricted to white people and people of African descent. So those who were immigrants, so prior to the Civil War, many people who were not white were brought into the country, were physically present in the country, came into the country on their own, were conquered and incorporated into the country, but they could not be citizens. And they were not considered immigrants when they entered the country. The only ones who were were considered immigrants were the Europeans. After the Civil War, not only is citizenship extended to people of African descent, none of whom are immigrating to the United States of coming to the United States in the aftermath of centuries of slavery and, finally, the war and abolition of slavery, but other people, for example, the Chinese, who are coming into the country, are still not eligible for citizenship. In fact, they’re legally defined as racially ineligible to citizenship.

And what really makes things complicated for immigration law is when citizenship by birth is created with the 14th amendment in 1868, also in the aftermath of the Civil War, because it creates this sort of logical impossibility that people who have been declared racially ineligible for citizenship, people who were not considered immigrants even when they come to the country, they’re considered workers but not immigrants, that they can then obtain access to citizenship by birth. It is this logical impossibility of people who are legally defined as racially ineligible to citizenship and then because of being physically present, able to obtain immigrant citizenship by birth, that leads Congress to start setting up restrictions on immigration. And restrictions against people who are considered to be racially ineligible to citizenship, that is the Chinese and eventually all Asians, and Asia is very broadly defined under this law.

JUAN GONZÁLEZ: Aviva Chomsky, I wanted to ask you, in your introduction, you refer to a phrase that I’ve heard often from readers and callers, usually angry readers and callers to me at the Daily News, when they say, Mr. Gonzalez, what part of illegal don’t you understand? You raise the point that the concept of the illegality in terms of immigration is actually a relatively new term in American history, and it’s also been changed over time. And it’s use has become — has always been racialized. Could you talk about that?

AVIVA CHOMSKY: Yes, absolutely. I think it is part of the same system I was describing before that restricted immigration to white people and citizenship to white people and then started to cut off immigration. But as immigration started to be restricted for groups, including Asians and eventually even for Europeans who were considered to be inferior Europeans, like southern and eastern Europeans in the 1920s, Mexican border crossing was never restricted. Mexican border crossing was never restricted because Mexican labor was so utterly necessary in the southwest of the United States and because Mexicans were not considered immigrants, so therefore, their immigration did not have to be restricted. They were considered to be workers, legally discriminated against for what were considered racial grounds, that is they were so-called “Mexican.” That was perfectly legal. To deprive them of citizenship was perfectly legal. And, the system worked from the perspective of maintaining United States is a white country because unlike the Asians, Mexican migration was generally circular migration. That is, Mexicans came, worked for a season or year or a couple of years, and returned to Mexico. So the history of border migrations for 150 years was one of circular migrations that were basically either completely unregulated or, for example during 1942 and 1964, extended through 1967, government-sponsored through the Bracero program, but migrations that denied citizenship and denied rights to the Mexicans who were in the country.

So the creation of illegality and starting to call this migration illegal happens in 1965, really, when Mexican migration is, for the first time, considered to be immigration and is legally restricted, that is, a quota is put on Mexican migration as it is on every country of the world. And in a situation where tens of thousands of Mexicans have been crossing the border legally and recruited and sometimes even coerced, every year, all of a sudden, this is made illegal. It is not stopped, but it is given a different name. Instead of calling it the Bracero program, it is called illegal migration. It is still just as necessary to the economy of the Southwest, it’s still encouraged by all different sectors, but the discrimination against these workers is now justified by this introduction of this new terminology and status of the illegality. I hope I explained that, it’s a little complicated.

JUAN GONZÁLEZ: And your point is that once this new illegality for Mexican immigration begins post-1965, that then begins the criminalization of Mexicans as migrants. And you draw the parallel in your book with Michelle Alexander’s book on mass incarceration and how the racialization that occurs — and describes in her book, “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration In the Age of Colorblindness.” This is Alexander speaking on Democracy Now!

MICHELLE ALEXANDER: I think we have become blind in this country to the ways in which we have managed to reinvent a caste-like system here in the United States, one that functions in a manner that is as oppressive in many respects as the one that existed in South Africa under apartheid and that existed under Jim Crow here in the United States. Although our rules and laws are now officially colorblind, they operate to discriminate in a grossly disproportionate fashion through the War On Drugs and the get tough movement, millions of poor people — overwhelmingly poor people of color, have been swept into our nation’s prisons and jails, branded criminals and felons, primarily for nonviolent and drug-related crimes. The very source of crimes that occur with roughly equal frequency in middle-class white neighborhoods and on college campuses, but go largely ignored. Branded criminal felons and the are ushered into a permanent second class status where they’re stripped of their many rights supposedly won in the civil rights movement like the right to vote, the right to serve on juries and the right to be free, of legal discrimination in employment, housing, access to education and public benefits.

JUAN GONZÁLEZ: So, Aviva Chomsky, you draw similar parallels in terms of the criminalization of Mexicans. Could you elaborate?

AVIVA CHOMSKY: Yeah, when you listen to Michelle Alexander list the legal disabilities that come with a criminal record, they look exactly like the legal disabilities that come to Mexicans because of their illegal status. That is, they can’t vote, they can’t serve on juries, they aren’t eligible for public benefits, they’re legally prohibited from working. When I read Michelle Alexander’s book and heard her speak about this I thought, there is a real parallel here. One part of the parallel is that the dismantling of the Jim Crow regime as a result of popular mobilization and the civil rights movement goes along with a dismantling of the regime of legalized discrimination against Mexicans embodied in the Bracero program. That is the idea that we can actually step up and say outright that this is what we are doing, we are going to bring in Mexican workers and discriminate against them just because they’re Mexicans. You can’t do that anymore in the climate of the 1960’s. And yet another idea of hers that I find so compelling is this idea of status as a caste, and the creation of a new status for these Mexican workers that justifies mistreatment by criminalization, rather than overtly by race like it is OK to discriminate against them just because they are Mexican. Now we won’t call it that, now we’re going to turn them into criminals and then we can justify discrimination on the basis of the fact that we’re calling them criminals.

AMY GOODMAN: Aviva Chomsky, as we wrap up, you have written several books now on immigration. You wrote, “‘They Take Our Jobs!’ and 20 Other Myths About Immigration,” and of course your new book, “Undocumented: How Immigration Became Illegal.” What surprised you most in your research for this book?

AVIVA CHOMSKY: I think what surprised me most happened before I knew I was writing the book, but it’s one of the things that led me to write the book. I had been working with immigrants, including many undocumented immigrants in the U.S. really since the early 1980’s. But I had never been to the border. And some of my friends who worked with border organizations down in Arizona kept saying, you can’t keep talking about immigration without coming to the border. And finally in 2010, I took a group of students on a trip with No More Deaths, where we worked on the Mexican side of the border taking testimonies from people who had been deported, people who had mostly been picked up in the desert and were dumped in Nogales Sonora on the Mexican side of the border, taking their testimonies and hearing stories. Just realizing the drastic and devastating nature of our immigration policies and their impact on people and really turning the border into what felt like a war zone, but there was no war. These people were displaced and uprooted and homeless because of deliberate U.S. policies.

AMY GOODMAN: Aviva Chomsky, we want to thank you for being with us. A new book, “Undocumented: How Immigration Became Illegal.” She is a professor at Salem State College — Salem State University in Massachusetts. This is Democracy Now!, democracynow.org, The War and Peace Report. When we come back, we continue our discussion about reparations in America. Stay with us

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From Germany to Mexico: How America’s source of immigrants has changed over a century

Where US immigrants come from, state by state today and a century agoWith more than 40 million immigrants, the United States is the top destination in the world for those moving from one country to another. Mexico, which shares a nearly 2,000-mile border with the U.S., is the source of the largest wave of immigration in history from a single country to the United States.

But today’s volume of immigrants, in some ways, is a return to America’s past. A century ago, the U.S. experienced another large wave of immigrants. Although smaller at 18.2 million, they hailed largely from Europe. Many Americans can trace their roots to that wave of migrants from 1890-1919, when Germany dominated as the country sending the most immigrants to many of the U.S. states, although the United Kingdom, Canada and Italy were also strongly represented.

In 1910, Germany was the top country of birth among U.S. immigrants, accounting for 18% of all immigrants (or 2.5 million) in the United States. Germans made up the biggest immigrant group in 17 states and the District of Columbia, while Mexico accounted for the most immigrants in just three states (Arizona, New Mexico and Texas). Behind Germany, the second-most number of immigrants in the U.S. were from Russia and the countries that would become the USSR (11%, or 1.6 million).

US Immigrants from Germany, Mexico

Since 1965, when Congress passed legislation to open the nation’s borders, immigrants have largely hailed from Latin America and Asia. In states that have attracted many immigrants, the current share of immigrants is below peaks reached more than a century ago. Today there are four states (California, New York, New Jersey and Florida) in which about one-in-five or more people are foreign born. California peaked in 1860 at 39.7%, when China was the top country of birth among immigrants there. Meanwhile, New York and New Jersey peaked in 1910 at 30.1% (Russia and the USSR) and 26.2% (Italy), respectively.

Today, five times as many immigrants in the U.S. are from Mexico than China, the country with the second-highest number of immigrants (5% of all immigrants in the U.S., or 2.2 million). Mexico is the birthplace of 29% (or 11.7 million) of all immigrants in the United States. Immigrants born in Mexico account for more than half of all of the foreign born in four states: New Mexico (72.4%), Arizona (60.2%), Texas (59.7%) and Idaho (53.5%).

Despite Mexico’s large numbers, immigrants come to the U.S. from all over the world. India is the top country of birth among immigrants in New Jersey, West Virginia  and Pennsylvania, even though only about one-in-ten immigrants in each state are from India. Canada is the top country of birth for immigrants in Maine (27%), New Hampshire (14%), Vermont (23%), North Dakota (19%) and Montana (25%). Filipinos account for a large share of immigrants in Hawaii (45%) and Alaska (30%).

Percentage of U.S. population that is foreign born

Note: Countries are defined by their modern-day boundaries, which may be different from their historical boundaries. For example, China includes Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan. Russia and the former USSR countries are combined in this analysis, even though the Soviet Union was only in existence between 1922 and 1991. Birthplace is self-reported by respondents. 


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